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Cable haulage continued to be used where gradients were even steeper.
The Lister Petter Range
These early installations of stationary engines would all have been steam-powered initially. Canals[ edit ] For canalsa distinct area of application concerned the powering of boat lifts bakery courses in bangalore dating inclined planes.
This network of generators often forms a crucial part of the national electricity system's strategy for coping with periods of high demand. Various kinds of rack railway were developed to overcome the lack of friction of conventional locomotives on steep gradients.
Smaller units were generally powered by spark-ignition engines, which were cheaper to buy and required less space to install. Engines would often be installed in a dedicated 'engine house', which was usually an outbuilding separate from the main house to reduce the interference from the engine noise.
The pulley on the generator was much smaller than the flywheel, providing the required 'gearing up' effect.
Cable haulage railways[ edit ] Industrial railways in quarries and mines made use of cable railways based on the inclined plane idea, and certain early passenger railways in the UK were planned with lengths of cable-haulage to overcome severe gradients.
The steeper 1 in 50 grades from Liverpool down to the docks were operated by cable traction for several decades until locomotives improved.
Lister Petter Engine Illustrative Identification
Cable railways generally have two tracks with loaded wagons on one track partially balanced by empty wagons on the other, to minimise fuel costs for the stationary engine.
Had cable haulage been necessary, then inconvenient and time-consuming shunting would obviously have been required to attach and detach the cables. Wealthy households could afford to employ a dedicated engineer to maintain the equipment, but as the demand for electricity spread to smaller homes, manufacturers produced engines that required less maintenance and that did not need specialist training to operate.
Later spark-ignition engines developed from the s could be directly coupled.
Where possible these would be arranged to utilise water and gravity in a balanced system, but in some cases additional power input was required from a stationary engine for the system to work.
Such generator sets were also used in industrial complexes and public buildings- anywhere where electricity was required but mains electricity was not available. Electricity generation[ edit ] Before mains electricity and the formation of nationwide power gridsstationary engines were widely used for small-scale electricity generation.
The vast majority of these were constructed and in many cases, demolished again before steam engines were supplanted by internal combustion alternatives.
Some manufacturers of stationary engines[ edit ]. Most countries in the Western world completed large-scale rural electrification in the years following World War IImaking individual generating plants obsolete for front-line use.
Pumping station The development of water supply and sewage removal systems required the provision of many pumping stations. As with other equipment, the generator was driven off the engine's flywheel by a broad flat belt. The engine house would contain the engine, the generator, the necessary switchgear and fusesas well as the engine's fuel supply and usually a dedicated workshop space with equipment to service and repair the engine.
Due to their simplicity and economy, hot bulb engines were popular for high-power applications until the diesel engine took their place from the s. Most engines of the lateth and earlyth centuries ran at speeds too low to drive a dynamo or alternator directly.
However, even in countries with a reliable mains supply, many buildings are still fitted with modern diesel generators for emergency use, such as hospitals and pumping stations.
For the first proper railway, the Liverpool and Manchester ofit was not clear whether locomotive traction would work, and the railway was designed with steep 1 in gradients concentrated on either side of Rainhilljust in case.
Fortunately, the Rainhill gradients proved not to be a problem, and in the event, locomotive traction was determined to be a new technology with great potential for further development.
In these, some form of stationary engine steam-powered for earlier installations is used to drive one or more pumpsalthough electric motors are more conventionally used nowadays. Cable haulage did prove viable where the gradients were exceptionally steep, such as the 1 in 8 gradients of the Cromford and High Peak Railway opened in Up to the s most rural houses in Europe and North America needed their own generating equipment if electric light was fitted.